Concepts of music | Music Class 101

Concepts of music

Concepts of music are an important tool that helps in analyzing music and give in detail the various attributes it possesses. They also act as an ingredient and offer guidance to people or students who would like to pursue music as a career. This paper helps to describe this concepts:

Duration

Duration is an important music concept, and it refers to the length of a note. Duration is one of the various properties of a tone which forms the basis of a rhythm in a song. Duration can be described as either long or short. The duration of music has various aspects. The first aspect of duration is the beat. A beat is the regular pulse in a particular piece of music, and it causes people to tap whenever music is playing. A beat can be described as strong, weak, definite or indefinite. The other concept of duration is the metre. In the music, metre is described as a group of beats that are heard as an organized succession of rhythmic pulses. Also, tempo is used to describe the duration of music. It refers to change in speed and how it affects the music.

Pitch

The second music concept is pitch. Pitch enables the proper ordering of sounds on a frequency scale. It can be described as either higher or lower in relation to musical melodies. The pitch is described based on the frequency of a particular vibration. Though pitch and frequency are similar, frequency is objective while pitch tends to be subjective. The pitch of a sound is measured as a frequency and is quantified in terms of cycles per second. Therefore, pitch is measured according to the vibrations it causes on a sound wave. The pitch of a sound is affected by pressure. The pitch of a sound increases with low pressure and decreases with high pressure.

Dynamic and expressive techniques

The other music concept is the dynamic and expressive techniques. In the music, dynamics describes the volume of the sound. The volume of sound increases with an increase in the amplitude of a particular sound wave. The highest volume is called a peak while the lowest volume is called a trough. The change in sound dynamics is what keeps the listeners interested and engaged emotionally. Various words like piano, crescendo, forte and diminuendo among others are used in describing the volume of sound.  On the other hand, expressive techniques refer to how a performer uses various techniques and effects to express personal interpretation of the music. These expressions depend on the source of the sound and instruments. Accent is one type of expressive techniques and it involves emphasizing a note dynamically thus making it stronger. The other types include Glissando, Legato and Staccato among others.

Color

Color is another music concept. It refers to the quality of sound and its sources. The tone color depends on the instrument from which the sound originates. The sound sources are of various categories. These include orchestral which include brass, percussion and string. The other source category is electronic sources which may either be loop based, synthesized or a replication of acoustic. The sound color is affected by the surrounding environment. A good example is the sound produced in a hall where it is affected by the echo produced.

Texture

The other type of music concept is the texture. Texture in music refers to the layers of sounds or it can also describe the combination of tone colors in music. The texture of music can be described as either thick or thin. Thin sound texture is experienced when there exists some few sounds having a high pitch or having linear ideas. It occurs when many instruments are playing a particular melody together. The texture of sound becomes thick when the spectrum and activity of sound increases. This implies that the kind of music that uses many instruments and includes a layer of melodic and harmonic lines has a thick texture. Sound texture has various practices like doubling, unison playing, different instruments imitating melodic ideas and the use of question – answer phrases. Additionally, texture is divided into various categories. One category is the monophonic category which refers to a kind of music which has a single melody being played. The other category is the Homophonic texture which contains a harmonic that is supported by harmonic accompaniment. Polyphonic texture mostly exists in music when more than one melody is predominant. Lastly, Heterophonic texture occurs when many instruments play embellishments the same tune.

Structure

The last concept of music is the structure. The structure is used to describe the form of the music. It helps to show how various musical shapes are combined together to form a complete work. It also facilitates in identification of various changes and repetitions of musical ideas . These ideas are then grouped to form distinct sections. The sections allow the grouping of musical events into discernable parts. New sections are identified by the emergence of new ideas as each new idea highlights a new section. The music texture is grouped into various forms. The first form of texture is the blues form. The Blues form uses a repetitive A section and its changes revolve around other musical concepts. The popular song form comprises of a combination that is selected from the intro, instrumental, verse, chorus and Outro sections. On top of this, the Binary form comprises of an A section and a B section following each other. Other forms include Rondo and Through Composed.

The music concepts help to explain the pillars that form the music. They help a person to understand music in depth and appreciate it both as a career and as an art.

College Paper about medical devices | Best Homework Help

X-rays: X-rays are electromagnetic waves with frequencies ranging between 3×1016 Hz to 3×1019 Hz (Nasa Goddard Space Flight Center n.d.) with the energy increasing with increase in frequency.Absorption of X-rays by matter increases with both the increase in incident energy of the X-rays as well as the atomic number of the matter on which the radiation is incident. Different body tissues have different concentrations of Atomic number and the tissue with a large percentage of high atomic number atoms would absorb X-rays to a greater degree. As a result of this differential absorption of X-rays in tissues, bone, soft tissue, fat and air inside the body appear different on a X-ray photograph with the gray tone decreasing as the tissues absorb more radiation. Since the metals have are high in Atomic number, metallic objects inside a body appear whiter than bones. Imaging of the body by X-rays would result in the formation of the image of the dense material on the photographic plate. The image would help determine the position of an introduced object or condition of a broken bone. Use of radio opaque material:As the soft tissues of the body do not absorb X-rays to any great degree it is impossible to find out the state of the soft tissues of the body or some internal organ by the X-ray imaging method. To address this issue a non-toxic substance having an element with high atomic number in its composition can be introduced in the body either orally or in the form of an enema.Barium sulphate is such a substance. It is a metallic radio-opaque contrast medium.Barium has a high atomic number – 56 and hence absorbs X-rays to a great extent and is often used for X-ray imaging of internal body structure. As barium sulphate passes through the canal it coats the wall of the canal. Appropriate time is allowed to lapse so that the introduced material coats the part of the canal to be investigated. After the requisite period of time the part of the canal to be investigated is subjected to X-rays. The rays pass through the soft tissues of the body but are unable to pass through the barium sulphate coated part. In the photograph the coated part stands out in white and any anomaly in the organ can be clearly observed (Radiology MasterClass n.d.)(National Institute of Health n.d.). CAT scanner: A Cat-Scanner comprises of a doughnut shaped X-ray scanner and an attached computer. A motorized tray-like table which can be moved through the ‘hole’ is attached to the scanner. The patient lies on the tray. The scanner is able to take X-ray pictures of a body introduced in the ‘hole’ of the doughnut simultaneously from different angles. The X-ray source rotates very fast around the ‘hole‘ of the ‘doughnut’ as the body of the patient is moved through the ‘hole’ on a motorized tray and the image of consecutive cross-sectional ‘slices’ different of the part of the body to be examined isscanned by X-ray from different angles. The image formed showed contrasts in different shades of gray due to differential absorption by various body tissues. This enables the doctor to examine abnormalities inside an organ that would not be clear in ordinary X-rays. Though normally the individual images show the cross-sectional slices of the body, an extremely detailed three dimensional image of the part of the body being examined can also be reconstructed from the cross-sectional images by digitally combining various ‘slices’ by the computer.(Huynh 2011) Sound waves: The sound waves,longitudinal progressive waves which can only travel only through mediums are also used in medical investigations. Sound waves are able to move through solid, liquid and gaseous medium. The velocity of the sound wave traveling through any medium is inversely proportional to the square-root of the density of the medium. The waves travelling through gas are also directly proportional to the square root of the pressure and they progress through the gas by alternate compression and rarefaction of the medium. As in all waves velocity of the sound in related to the frequency and wavelength by the relation v = nλ where v, n and λ represent the velocity, frequency and wavelength of the wave.The sound waves which have a frequency between 20 and 20000 hertz (which are created when the source vibrates between 20 and 20000 times per second) are known as audible sound. Sound waves undergo reflection which manifests as echo and in case the sound wave hits a surface perpendicularly it is reflected back along the same path. Sound waves also exhibit Doppler Effect which results in change in frequency and wavelength of the wave received by a receptor in case there is relative motion between the two. Ultrasonic waves – Production and Detection: The waves having a frequency over 20000 hertz is known as ultrasound. In medical investigations ultrasound used has a frequency in the range of megahertz. The ultrasound equipment consists of a computer and several transducers. Ultrasound is both produced and detected by transducers which use piezoelectric material (often a slice of quartz crystal)and applying electrical voltage across the faces upon which the material starts to vibrate at a specific speed depending upon the piezoelectric material used. The number of vibrations per second is well over 20000 hertz and transducer is held such that the ultrasound waves enter the body at right angles and are reflected back by the body organs to be investigated along the same direction. The same crystalslice receives the vibration pulses and changes it back to electrical pulses from which the image of the body part investigated can be digitally constructed by the computer. So the transducer acts both as a producer and a detector of ultrasound. Typically a transducer may have more than one piezoelectric crystal and a machine have several transducers. Ultrasonic Echo Procedure: The transducer is placed on the part of the body of the patient which is to be investigated and switched on. The amount of ultrasound to be reflected back or transmitted is determined by the impedance which depends on density of the material and the velocity of ultrasound in it. As in the air skin interface difference in ultrasound impedance is high, a gel is smeared on the skin to enable the ultrasound to pass through the skin. As difference in impedance between the soft tissues in a body is low, most of the ultrasound passes through the soft tissues and a small echo is obtained. This is known as echo. The echo from dense objects like kidney stone or bones of a foetus is detected as a large electrical pulse and the computer would construct imagefrom the different pulses. Freudenrich, C. C. n.d.)An ordinary Ultrasound procedure can only be used to investigate body organs that are not moving. Doppler ultrasound is used to investigate blood flow in various organs and blood vessels by using the reflecting the ultrasound waves from moving blood cells whereby there is a shift in original frequency as the flow moves away or towards the detecting transducers. This shift can be measured and from that the direction and speed of blood flow as well as the existence of blood clots in the vessels can also be found out. Magnetic resonance Imaging – Principle:MRI, like ultrasound is a zero radiation procedure used in body imaging. A magnetic resonance imaging is performed with a magnetic field, radio wave and a computer which reproduces the image obtained by the procedure. MRI principle relies on the fact that the radio waves are not at all absorbed by the body. A magnetic field is produced and the body placed in it. The hydrogen nuclei present in all parts of the body gets aligned along the magnetic field. Radio waves are then transmitted through the body which cause the protons to spin in a ordered manner. When transmission stops, protons all over the body return to their original configuration and in the process emit a signal which is detected and measured and then processed into image by the computer. During one scan thousands of individual signals are processed to form a single image. However one should not have any metallic implants within the body as these would distort the magnetic field (Koyen n.d.). MRI Uses: MRI can be used to get detailed images of all the soft tissues of the body. As the procedure uses radio waves it is safe and can be undergone by almost all patients safely. There is a lot of water present in a human body in almost all parts. MRI procedure makes use of the hydrogen present in the water and in organ tissues and causes each hydrogen nucleus to emit a signal which is then detected as the patient is moved through the magnetic field in a motorized tray, cross-sectional images are generated. These can be used to digitally construct the image of an internal organ. As MRI is a no radiation procedure and produces detailed images of internal organs MRI procedures are preferred to detect tumours, cysts and other abnormalities of various parts of the body, abnormalities of brain tissue and spinal cord, injuries and abnormalities of joints, abnormalities in liver and other internal organs, gynaecological investigations (US Food and Drug Administration, n.d.). MRI in post mortem and post-operative investigation: MRI is an invaluable tool to forensic investigators as it can offer the cross-sectional view of an organ without dissecting it. According to Levy (2012) it is possible to detect injury patterns in 3 dimensions, detect injury or diseased area and view anatomic parts that are difficult to dissect. MRI can detect the extent of an external injury thus aiding the doctor to form an opinion regarding the cause of death It can also help determine whether any other medical abnormalities were present in any organ other than what was known so as to determine the actual cause of death. It can also help a forensic investigator decide whether a partial or a full autopsy would have to be performed. MRI is an invaluable tool for surgeons to understand whether the operation has been successful a tumour or cyst has been completely removed or a orthopaedic procedure have been successfully performed. It also helps determining if during the surgical procedure a small external object has inadvertently been left within the body. X-rays, Ultrasound, Computerised Tomography and MRI: Of all the methods discussed ultrasound is the only method which does not use any sort of radiation and is hence safe for investigation of foetus and pregnant women. It is suitable for investigation of soft tissue but not hard tissue deformity. Another problem is the increased impedance in the soft tissue-gas interface and so it is not suitable for imaging lungs or alimentary canal. X-ray is a simple procedure which results in the patient getting some radiation dose but is quick and most inexpensive of all the four procedures. Computerized tomography results in obtaining a detailed image of the body part under investigation and is an invaluable tool in diagnosis though it too is associated with radiation dosage and is expensive. It is also suitable for patients having metallic implants in their body or pacemakers or even tattoos that are done with colours containing metallic salt. MRI is a detailed imaging procedure involving the magnetic field and radio waves and hence is not possible for persons who have metallic implants in their bodies. However as it is not associated with radiation dosage it is a very safe procedure for patients. It is particularly useful for imaging brain tissue. However it is not suitable procedure for investigation of hard tissues like bone and teeth (US Food and Drug Administration n.d.). Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy is the use of high-energy radiation or high energy atomic particles. Radiation emitted by the radioactive substances introduced may be of three types α, β and λ of which first one is least penetrative and the last one most. While the first two is usually introduced in the body gamma radiation is sometimes delivered from outside the body by Fro a radioactive Cobalt-60 source. Radioactive Iodine-131 is used in instances of thyroid cancer while Indium-192 are implanted for treatment in head and breast. Radioactive isotopes Strontium-89 and Samarium 153 are used to get relief from pain in bone-cancer (World Nuclear Association, 2014). According to National Cancer Institute factsheet (n.d.) these damage the DNA of malignant cells and thereby destroy those. The high energy radiation damages the DNA or may create charged particles within the cell which damage DNA, In case of severe damage the cancerous cells die and are eliminated by natural processes from the body. The dose may be given by an apparatus outside the body or by suitable radioactive materials of short half-lives introduced in the body so that the material accumulates in the tissue near tumour and damages it. Radiation therapy may be used alone or in combination with chemotherapy and surgery. Reference Nasa Goddard Space Flight Center n.d. Regions of Electromagnetic Spectrum.[Online][Accessed on 22nd February 2014]http://imagine.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/science/know_l1/spectrum_chart.html Tyagi S. P. n.d. 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(No date) Radiation Therapy for Cancer.[online][Accessed on 20th February 2014] http://www.cancer.gov/cancertopics/factsheet/Therapy/radiation World Nuclear Association February 2014 Radioisotopes in Medicine[online][accessed on 22nd February, 2014]http://www.world-nuclear.org/info/Non-Power-Nuclear-Applications/Radioisotopes/Radioisotopes-in-Medicine/ Figure 1,2 and 3 NASA Aeronautics and Space Administration n.d.The Electomagnetic Spectrum.[online][accessed on 22nd February, 2014] http://science.hq.nasa.gov/kids/imagers/ems/xrays.html Figure 4 Bury, B 19th January 2005 Looking Through You… How do X-rays Work? [online] http://www.thenakedscientists.com/HTML/articles/article/bobburycolumn5.htm/ Figure 5 Huynh, H P. (22nd April 2011) Computerized Axial Tomography: A Revolutionary Medical Imaging Tool. USCience review.[online][Accessed on 20th February 2014] http://www-scf.usc.edu/~uscience/computerized_axial_tomography.html

AceMyHW.com Figure 6 CT Scan Guidance n.d. Acute Subdural Haematoma.[Online][Accessed on 22nd February 2014]http://www.crash.lshtm.ac.uk/ctscanlarge.htm Figure 7 The Physics Classroom n.d. Sound is a Pressure Wave.[Online][Accessed on 22rd February 2014]http://www.physicsclassroom.com/class/sound/u11l1c.cfm Figure 8 Freudenrich, C. C. (No Date) How Ultrasound Works.[online][Accessed on 20th February 2014] http://electronics.howstuffworks.com/ultrasound.htm Figure 9 Aguirre, E. L. (21st March 2013) A Physician performs an Ultrasound Procedure on a Pregnant Woman[online][Accessed on 20th February 2014] https://www.uml.edu/News/stories/2013/Podolskiy-ultrasound-imaging.aspx Figure 10 Antony J n.d. Femoral Vein Thrombus[Online][Accessed on 22nd February 2014] http://www.ultrasound-images.com/vascular.htm Figure 11 Koyen,C (No date) MRI A Guided Tour.[online][Accessed on 20th February 2014]http://www.magnet.fsu.edu/education/tutorials/magnetacademy/mri/fullarticle.html Figure 12 Beardsley S (no date).[online][Accessed on 20th February 2014]http://www.sandybeardsley.com/sandys_mri.html Figure 13 Talo and Julianna(No date).How Radiation is used in Cancer Treatment.[online][Accessed on 20th February 2014] http://nuclearchem.wikispaces.com/How+Radiation+Is+Used+In+Cancer+Treatments Table 1 and 2 Physics of Medical X-ray Imaging n.d. Physical Determinants of Contrast [online] http://ric.uthscsa.edu/personalpages/lancaster/DI-II_Chapters/DI_chap4.pdf